Proofs Glossary

Concepts used in understanding the basic arguments

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A posteriori

Etymology: Latin, literally: from the latter

Definitions: 1) inductive reasoning; 2) information derived from observed facts

     See Also: A priori

A Priori

Etymology: Latin, literally: from the former

Definitions: 1) relating to or derived by reasoning from self-evident propositions; 2) being without examination or analysis; 3) formed or conceived beforehand; 4) presupposed by experience; 5) presumed true; used as a fundamental basis of agreement before discussion; 6) sometimes a term used for a belief without proof

     See Also: A posteriori


Definitions: 1) worthy of acceptance or belief; genuine; real; 2) approved by authority; trustworthy; reliable; 3) true to one's own personality, spirit, or character; unique



Etymology: Latin: to drive together

Definitions: 1) appealing forcibly to the mind or reason; convincing; 2) compelling serious attention; 3) a sound argument presented with lucidity and, often, telling evidence; 4) a valid use of logic; 5) common sense made relevant and meaningful to the audience



Definitions: 1) something that has actual existence; 2) an authentic occurrence; 3) a piece of information presented as having objective reality



Definitions: 1) the art of thinking and reasoning justly; 2) formally true or valid; 3) capable of reasoning in an orderly coherent fashion; using correct rationality; 4) a persuasive argument with an expected and necessary progression; one thing reasonably and sensibly following each statement; 5) the presentation of facts, feelings, and/or beliefs so as to give the listener reason to accept a given conclusion



Etymology:  Greek: spirit; Old High German: memory

Definitions: 1) the complex of elements in an individual that feels, perceives, thinks, wills, and especially reasons; 2)relating to the total emotional and intellectual response of an individual to internal or external reality; 3) the organized conscious and unconscious adaptive mental activity of an organism; 4) intellectual activity as contrasted with physical or spiritual activity; 5) consciousness



Definitions: 1) free from prejudicial personal feelings or opinions; unbiased; 2) external to the mind and distinct from inner or imaginary feelings and thoughts; actual phenomena; real



Definitions: 1) the quality or state of being a person; 2) the totality of an individual's unique behavioral, emotional, and social characteristics and distinctive traits; 3) that which is identified with mind, soul, and spirit held together in functional relationship by life in a material body; 4) that which causes the creative mind to strive for the mastery of matter and energy; 5) that which unifies energy systems; 6) is aware of its own and others personal existence as well as the relationships thereof


Etymology: Latin: an honest test

Definitions: 1) the cognition of evidence that compels acceptance by the mind of a truth or a fact; 2) the process of establishing the validity of a statement especially by derivation from other other statements (see 'a priori') in accordance with principles of reasoning; 3) something that induces certainty or establishes legitimacy; 4) the quality or state of having been tested and tried; 5) evidence operating to determine a finding or judgement, especially against an established standard of comparison; 6) experience



Definitions: 1) containing and agreeable to reason or understanding; 2) the recognition of reality; insight; 3) a person with stable mental functions, normal intellectual abilities, and consistent thought processes


Definitions: 1) existing in and of itself as a physical fact, a logical truth, or a spiritual value; 2) genuine; 3) having objective actuality; 4) of sensible and practical usefulness


Definitions: 1) a rational ground or motive; 2) something supporting a conclusion or explanation of fact; 3) the ability to arrive at satisfactory conclusions; 4) an acceptable explanation giving credence to an argument; and intelligible argument; 5) the power of comprehending, inferring, or thinking in an orderly logical way; 6) the formulation of assumptions as foundations for discovery of the unknown



Definitions: 1) pertaining to the spirit or soul as distinguished from the body; 2) from or concerned with the higher part of the mind; 3) consisting of pure essence; incorporeal; 4) showing much refinement of thought and feeling; 5) having to do with religion or the church; sacred, devotional, or ecclesiastical; not lay or temporal; the moral aspect; 6) supernatural; supra-personal


Definitions: 1) of or relating to the essential being of that which has substance, qualities, attributes, or relations; 2) characteristic of or belonging to reality as perceived rather than verified independently; 3) peculiar to particular individual views, experience, or background; knowledge conditioned by personal mental characteristics; 4) arising out of, or identified by, means of one's perception of one's own state of mind and conscious processes



Definitions: 1) conforming to fact; real; 2) genuine; pure; legitimate; 3) loyal to a friend, idea, or ideal; faithful; steadfast; 4) honest; sincere; upright; 5) reliable; certain; 6) conforming to an established standard <true north>; exact; precise; accurate; 7) reflecting the essential character <true meaning>; 8) in proper order; in alignment to an important point or ideal; 9) logically necessary


Definitions: 1) the quality of being in accordance with or conforming to actual experience, facts, and reality; 2) the ideal of fundamental objective reality apart from and transcending perceived experience; 3) subjective existence portrayed to oneself or to others with honesty; integrity; veracity; 4) expressing sincerity in action, character, and utterance; 5) in agreement with a common standard or a collective idea



Definitions: 1) well-grounded or justifiable; 2) conforming to accepted principals; 3) persuasive enough to oblige acceptance

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