Proofs Glossary


Concepts used in understanding the basic arguments

Browse the glossary using this index

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A

A posteriori

Etymology: Latin, literally: from the latter

Definitions: 1) inductive reasoning; 2) information derived from observed facts

     See Also: A priori

A Priori

Etymology: Latin, literally: from the former

Definitions: 1) relating to or derived by reasoning from self-evident propositions; 2) being without examination or analysis; 3) formed or conceived beforehand; 4) presupposed by experience; 5) presumed true; used as a fundamental basis of agreement before discussion; 6) sometimes a term used for a belief without proof

     See Also: A posteriori

Authentic

Definitions: 1) worthy of acceptance or belief; genuine; real; 2) approved by authority; trustworthy; reliable; 3) true to one's own personality, spirit, or character; unique

C

Cogent

Etymology: Latin: to drive together

Definitions: 1) appealing forcibly to the mind or reason; convincing; 2) compelling serious attention; 3) a sound argument presented with lucidity and, often, telling evidence; 4) a valid use of logic; 5) common sense made relevant and meaningful to the audience

F

Fact

Definitions: 1) something that has actual existence; 2) an authentic occurrence; 3) a piece of information presented as having objective reality

L

Logical

Definitions: 1) the art of thinking and reasoning justly; 2) formally true or valid; 3) capable of reasoning in an orderly coherent fashion; using correct rationality; 4) a persuasive argument with an expected and necessary progression; one thing reasonably and sensibly following each statement; 5) the presentation of facts, feelings, and/or beliefs so as to give the listener reason to accept a given conclusion

M

Mind

Etymology:  Greek: spirit; Old High German: memory

Definitions: 1) the complex of elements in an individual that feels, perceives, thinks, wills, and especially reasons; 2)relating to the total emotional and intellectual response of an individual to internal or external reality; 3) the organized conscious and unconscious adaptive mental activity of an organism; 4) intellectual activity as contrasted with physical or spiritual activity; 5) consciousness

O

Objective

Definitions: 1) free from prejudicial personal feelings or opinions; unbiased; 2) external to the mind and distinct from inner or imaginary feelings and thoughts; actual phenomena; real

P

Personality

Definitions: 1) the quality or state of being a person; 2) the totality of an individual's unique behavioral, emotional, and social characteristics and distinctive traits; 3) that which is identified with mind, soul, and spirit held together in functional relationship by life in a material body; 4) that which causes the creative mind to strive for the mastery of matter and energy; 5) that which unifies energy systems; 6) is aware of its own and others personal existence as well as the relationships thereof

Proof

Etymology: Latin: an honest test

Definitions: 1) the cognition of evidence that compels acceptance by the mind of a truth or a fact; 2) the process of establishing the validity of a statement especially by derivation from other other statements (see 'a priori') in accordance with principles of reasoning; 3) something that induces certainty or establishes legitimacy; 4) the quality or state of having been tested and tried; 5) evidence operating to determine a finding or judgement, especially against an established standard of comparison; 6) experience


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